Director's Corner: Workshops Guide the Way
Of all the modern ways to figure out what people want and how they can help make it happen, asking them remains one of the most effective — and getting them all in the same room is ideal for synergy and serendipity and iterative idea-development. That’s why meetings and workshops are a key part of how ATAP operates. Recently we have had a multi-laboratory follow-up to one part of DOE Big Ideas Summit, focusing on the big benefits possible with small accelerators; the LBNL-led U.S. Magnet Development Program refined its priorities and directions at its first general meeting; and the Workshop on the Dynamics of Radiation Effects in Materials spotlighted present and emerging ATAP capabilities.
April will bring an international collaboration meeting on the LHC Accelerator R&D Program (LARP) and the LHC Luminosity Upgrade project, efforts in which ATAP and our partners in the Engineering Division play key roles.
Meanwhile, we have been making ongoing critical contributions to the Linac Coherent Light Source-II project at SLAC, and the recently formed LBNL Project Management Advisory Board has given its highest rating to the LBNL LCLS-II team. Our recently formed Accelerator Modeling Program has published a paper describing a better way to cope with space charge in long-term tracking in high-intensity rings. Longtime expertise in our Fusion Energy and Ion Beam Technology Program is being applied to something that most of us in the accelerator community may not think about very often, but which is of the utmost importance to humankind — agriculture — with a noninvasive technique for in situ soil analysis. And LBNL Director Michael Witherell offers an update on the ALS Upgrade project.
I invite you to read on and learn more about these efforts as we move toward the opportunities for progress that 2017 will bring.
WORKSHOPS BRING COMMUNITIES TOGETHER, HELP SET DIRECTION
ATAP organized three recent events to bring together partners and other stakeholders in some of our key activities: the Workshop on Big Ideas with Small Accelerators; the first general meeting of the U.S. Magnet Development Program; and the Workshop on Dynamics of Radiation Effects in Materials.
Big Ideas from Small Accelerators
— “Bringing the machine to the problem” for diverse societal benefits
On February 2, 2017, 23 people from eight DOE national laboratories, four other research institutions, five universities, and three private-sector companies came to Berkeley to discuss the big things that might be done with small accelerators.
The workshop was a follow-on to one part of DOE’s third annual Big Ideas Summit. Our presentation at the Big Ideas Summit had focused on ways in which smaller, more cost-effective accelerators, including wakefield accelerators — such as the laser-plasma technology being developed at ATAP’s BELLA Center, as well as the superconducting-rf accelerators that have made great strides in recent years — can benefit society by solving some presently difficult problems. This workshop helped “Big Ideas with Small Accelerators” participants plan our next steps and a potential new entry in the ongoing Big Ideas process.
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|Some of the customers, applications, and requirements that have been brought out in the Solving Big Problems with Small Accelerators effort. Potential uses of advanced compact accelerators are numerous and diverse; the workshop discussed everything from inspection of cargo for nuclear materials, to flue-gas scrubbing at power plants, to precision cancer treatment, to something as humble yet important as disinfecting and removing harmful chemicals from wastewater. The potentially transformative aspect is “bringing the machine to the problem” with a level of physical and financial practicality enabled by new and emerging accelerator technologies.
These applications cover a wide range of societal needs and beam parameters. Nuclear security needs compact, high-energy electron accelerators, both for inspection and for replacement of radioactive sources used in industrial radiography. A host of industrial processes need low-energy (but sometimes high-power) electron beams. Highly targeted cancer treatment needs low-energy electron beams from machines compact enough for hospital deployment. And the DOE Office of Science and other discovery-science customers are always looking for high-performance, compact, energetic electron sources, e.g., for producing synchrotron light.
Public, private roles in bringing ideas to fruition
One thing that these diverse machines and applications have in common is the need for continued public investment in R&D to help bridge the gap between their present technology readiness levels and fullfledged readiness for adoption by the private sector. The US has made a considerable investment in bringing these capabilities to their present state. Bringing them to fruition will result in continued US leadership in their enabling technologies and application-specific implementations.
“Getting this technology into the hands of industry could drive profound changes in security, medicine, and industrial applications,” said ATAP Director Wim Leemans. Together with Dr. Stuart Henderson, who was then director of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade project at Argonne National Laboratory (and has since been named as director of Jefferson Laboratory), Leemans was one of the original Big Ideas presenters and organized the recent follow-up workshop. “These next-generation accelerators, and the technologies that make them possible, are very likely to come full circle and benefit discovery science,” he added.
A workshop now in the planning stages will further explore one of the key steps along the way: the need for multi-kW ultrafast laser technology. Laser physicists and engineers the world over are working on a variety of potentially game-changing advancements in the average power, peak power, and wall-plug efficiency of lasers. Laser technology is also the subject of multi-billion-dollar investments overseas, making this a crucial time for ensuring that the US will be the vendor rather than the customer of tomorrow’s leading-edge lasers. The results will be applicable to high-gradient, high-average-power laser plasma accelerators and to direct applications of laser light.
The workshop will evaluate the laser technology options and their technology readiness levels in support of the Big Ideas applications; the laser and optics R&D path and, where it is reasonable to make an estimate at this point, the costs; and how already-emerging partnerships among laboratories, universities, and the private sector can bring the ideas to fruition.
Look for more on these big ideas in future issues of this newsletter as we explore the needs of prospective users and develop the technologies to meet them.
US-MDP Holds First General Meeting
Forty-seven experts on superconducting magnets and materials, representing three US national labs plus CERN and KEK, seven universities, and four private-sector companies, convened in Napa, California February 6-8 for the first general meeting of the recently formed US Magnet Development Program.
Group picture of the first US-MDP meeting
As this was the first meeting of the MDP, the primary purpose was to introduce the program goals, management structure, current status of active projects and discuss future activities and expansion of the program.
The Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) in the DOE Office of Science established the program in response to recommendations from the Particle Physics Project Physics Prioritization Panel (P5) and the Accelerator R&D Subpanel in November 2015. An initial program plan, based on existing funded activities in superconducting magnets and materials, was completed in June 2016.
The 2.5-day meeting showcased the impressive depth and breadth of the US programs and generated numerous lively and fruitful discussions. This first meeting was judged to be an outstanding success, but we have much work to do in order to meet the challenging goals of the program.
To learn more…
- Read the Program Plan for the U.S. Magnet Development Program
- Visit the meeting’s Indico site
Workshop Focuses on Radiation Effects on Materials
— Convergence opportunities for new tools and techniques, software, experiment
The study of radiation effects in materials is important in a variety of application areas and is an example of the synergistic interplay of basic theoretical studies, modeling/simulations, and experiments. One of the most impactful and ambitious application area is future fusion reactors.
Participants from 7 DOE national laboratories, 9 US universities, and three international institutions (LAL, GSI-Darmstadt, and the University of Helsinki) convened in Berkeley December 14-16 to discuss these challenges and opportunities.
Among the existing and emergent tools that can be used to study these effects are ATAP’s NDCX-II heavy-ion accelerator facility, the HiRES apparatus for ultrafast electron diffraction, and BELLA-i.
The impact potential of these advances is tremendous and will be crucial to the grand challenges posed by fusion energy, and also has important implications for other aspects of nuclear energy, as well as high-performance accelerators and radiation-hard electronics.
To learn more about the Workshop, download the summary report by the workshop chairs, Thomas Schenkel and Peter Seidl.
TESTING THE METAL OF LCLS-II
— SXR into long-term test; HGVPU into pre-production; LLRF exercised
The SLAC-based multi-laboratory project to build LCLS-II, a next-generation free-electron laser light source, requires the collaborators to meet state-of-the-art challenges in accelerator physics and technology from end to end. LBNL has crucial responsibilities in the project, including two major deliverables: the injector source and the two FEL undulator arrays, one each for hard and soft X rays.
We contribute as well to accelerator physics and technology studies in beam dynamics, FEL design, low-level RF, and management and integration of cryogenics systems. Production is under way in most of our areas of responsibility.
Soft-X-Ray (SXR) Undulator Phases into Production
All work on the pre-production SXR undulator is complete, the unit has been delivered to SLAC for long-term testing, and production is proceeding with vendors. The first article is planned to be delivered to SLAC in March 2017, ahead of the project schedule.
LBNL manages and works closely with the vendors to deliver to the exacting LCLS-II specifications as proven by the pre-production unit performance, including QA oversight and acceptance criteria. Our approach in developing designs and testing prototypes at LBNL, and transferring the technology to industry, is important in providing high-quality product within cost and schedule requirements for the LCLS-II Project.
HGVPU Assembled, Being Readied for Pre-Production Testing
VHF Gun and Low-Energy Beam Transport
ATAP and others at LBNL play a key role in the technically demanding injector for LCLS-II; they are responsible for its design, construction and commissioning.
|VHF cavity vacuum wall plenum (left) and flange (right) prior to welding. VHF Gun cathode component fabrication is near completion in the LBNL machine shops, and the sub-assembly will be electron-beam welded at a vendor in March.
Work is also proceeding with the low-energy beamline components, including preparations for winding the bucking solenoid and the two beamline solenoids. The buncher cavity will be the next major LCLS-II production item to begin machining in the LBNL shops.
Cleanliness Is Next to the Superconducting Linac
Special attention to cleanliness is required in the LCLS-II beamline components and assemblies in order to keep particulates from entering the superconducting cavities, where they can degrade performance of the accelerating fields.
Surface particle counts on sample material coupons have been made and the results will be compared to measurements taken using a portable airborne particle counter with filtered nitrogen blown across the parts. New internal enclosure walls and doors, and new HEPA filters for the LBNL clean room have arrived and will be installed in February and March.
Sourcing the RF Power
A contract to design and build the gun’s radiofrequency power amplifier has been awarded to R&K Co. Ltd. of Fuji City, Japan, and a Preliminary Design Review held. LBNL provided the specifications for the amplifier, which will deliver 1.2 kW CW RF power to the gun, and will manage the contract. A team from LBNL visited R&K for two days to discuss design, testing, and delivery details, and to prepare for a Final Design Review to be held in late February.
Low-Level RF Controls Begin Testing and Software Development
FROM ATAP’S ROOTS, A DOWN-TO-EARTH ION-BEAM APPLICATION
Based on an article by Julie Chao of LBNL Public Affairs
When you think of particle accelerators, the “rhizosphere” — the hidden world of plant roots and the soil — is probably not the first thing that comes to mind. But ATAP physicists are parlaying accelerator science into a potentially transformative tool for studying the composition of soil without disturbing it.
Their work is one of a pair of projects awarded to Berkeley Lab by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). These innovative projects give nondestructive ways to “see” into the soil. The goal: giving farmers important information with which they can increase crop yields while also promoting carbon storage.
ATAP’s project will develop a new imaging technique based on neutron scattering to measure the distribution of carbon and other elements in the soil.
“An outstanding example of R&D leverage”
— ATAP Director Wim Leemans
“Both technologies could be transformational for agriculture — for quantifying belowground plant traits and where carbon and other elements are distributed — and will enable the next generation of predictive models for agriculture and climate,” said Dr. Eoin Brodie, a microbiologist and deputy director of Berkeley Lab’s Climate & Ecosystem Sciences Division, who is contributing to both projects. “They’re windows into the soil, something that we urgently need.”
Berkeley Lab received these competitive awards from ARPA-E’s Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS) program, which seeks to develop crops that take carbon out of the atmosphere and store it in soil—enabling a 50 percent increase in carbon deposition depth and accumulation while also reducing nitrous oxide emissions by 50 percent and increasing water productivity by 25 percent.
Soil carbon deficits are a global phenomenon resulting from many decades of industrial agriculture. Soils have the capacity to store significant quantities of carbon, reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations while also enhancing soil fertility and water retention.
From neutrons to gamma rays to carbon detection
From left to right: Drs. Persaud, Ludewigt, Brodie, Pries
|Persaud and his team at LBNL will work with Adelphi Technology Inc. to develop the neutron generator and associated-particle imaging system. ATAP will integrate the neutron generator, gamma detectors, and data acquisition system, including analysis software and algorithms to identify carbon in soil concentrations. The goal is to develop a mobile instrument that takes in situ measurements in a farmer’s field.
“This technology has its roots in ion accelerator R&D and has many variants and applications, both inside the Lab and in the private sector,” said Thomas Schenkel, ATAP’s program head for fusion science and ion beam technology. ATAP Director Wim Leemans added that it is “an outstanding example of R&D leverage, with important technology spinoff benefits through a cross-divisional partnership at Berkeley Lab to address challenges with very significant societal impact.”
“Aligned with several of Berkeley Lab’s projects as well as the Lab’s Microbes-to-Biomes initiative, these are two key projects in what we hope will eventually be an entire nimble and networked ecosystem sensing system (called EcoSENSE), which can guide agricultural or forestry system management and quantify the impacts of land use, extreme weather, and climate on carbon storage and ecosystem function,” Brodie said.
Added James Symons, Associate Laboratory Director for Physical Sciences, the area of Berkeley Lab that includes ATAP, “This is a potentially transformational project that is really enabled by having cross-disciplinary scientific expertise — in soil biology, soil physics, soil chemistry, geophysics, nuclear physics — all in one location at Berkeley Lab.”
FIRST SELF-CONSISTENT SYMPLECTIC MODEL FOR SPACE-CHARGE TRACKING
Many simulations in accelerator physics require particles being tracked through a storage ring for many turns. The algorithms used for this need to be symplectic in order to preserve phase space structure.
If an algorithm is not symplectic, small errors can add up, leading to wrong results. This makes tracking space-charge effects in storage rings difficult: Algorithms to calculate space-charge effects usually use the momentum conserved particle-in-cell (PIC) method. Although this method is self-consistent, it is not symplectic, and the requirements of Liouville’s theorem are not satisfied.
ATAP’s Ji Qiang recently suggested a method that mitigates the numerical grid heating (the way small errors add up in PIC codes) and satisfies the symplectic condition. He suggests a two- and three-dimensional symplectic quasi-static multiparticle tracking model for space charge simulations. It starts from the multiparticle Hamiltonian and uses a gridless spectral model to calculate the space-charge forces.
To learn more…
Ji Qiang, “Symplectic multiparticle tracking model for self-consistent space-charge simulation,” Physical Review Accelerators and Beams 20, 014203 (23 January 2017), https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.014203
LBNL DIRECTOR WITHERELL’S UPDATE ON ALS UPGRADE
From the March 2 edition of Today at Berkeley Lab
In my December column, I mentioned that we had received first-stage approval for the Advanced Light Source Upgrade project, ALS-U. I’d like to take some time now to talk about why ALS-U is the highest priority project of the Lab, and what that means.
One of Berkeley Lab’s national user facilities, the ALS is part of the DOE’s network of synchrotron light sources, and has been a global leader in soft x-ray science for two decades. The ALS facility was built from 1988 to 1993 on the site of E.O. Lawrence’s 184-inch cyclotron, the accelerator he started building at the time of his 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics. Its 40 beamlines provide over 2,300 scientists annually with the x-ray source and advanced instrumentation they need to advance their understanding of chemical processes and new materials. The number of publications describing ALS results has grown linearly since first operation of the facility, and is now nearly 1,000 per year.
With an average annual operating budget of $60 million, the ALS is enormously important to the Lab. The single most important way we connect with the national research enterprise is through our five user facilities, and we take great pride in the unique set of capabilities they represent. The value of ALS to the scientific community is enhanced by its collaborations with NERSC and the Molecular Foundry.
But the ALS cannot maintain its global reputation without significant enhancements, and in 2016, Lab leadership proposed to the DOE that they take advantage of new accelerator technologies that would allow the ALS to produce coherent beams up to 1,000 brighter than are now possible. The upgraded facility will enable new explorations of chemical reactions, battery performance, biological processes and exotic materials. At the heart of the upgrade is an improved electron storage ring that will use powerful, compact magnets arranged in a so-called multibend achromat lattice. For more about this, please visit https://als.lbl.gov/als-u/als-u-approach/.
This project is the largest undertaken at the Lab in decades. It draws on talent from several divisions, including the ALS, ATAP, Engineering, and Facilities. Roger Falcone will continue to direct the ALS’s scientific program and operations, and I have appointed Dave Robin as the ALS-U project’s permanent director. Dave will report directly to me — you will see this reporting relationship reflected on the Lab’s new organization chart.
ALS-U continues the Lab’s long legacy of building and operating particle accelerators. The soft x-ray capabilities made possible by this upgrade will surpass those at any storage-ring-based light source, either operating or planned, anywhere in the world. This is a tremendously exciting time for the Lab; please join me in supporting Dave, Roger, and all the people at the Lab developing the upgraded ALS facility that will produce breakthrough science for another 25 years.
OUTREACH AND EDUCATION
Daughters and Sons to Work Day, Nuclear Science Day for Scouts Highlight Upcoming Outreach Opportunities
In April there will be two large outreach events that are only possible thanks to many Lab volunteers lending a helping hand: Daughters & Sons to Work Day (April 27) and Nuclear Science Day for Scouts (April 29). Scientists, engineers, and support staff of all disciplines are invited, so mark your calendars and help build the people who will build the future!
Maglev model train is a perennial favorite among the interactive demos
Thursday April 27th: Daughters and Sons to Work Day
As she does every year, ATAP Education and Outreach Coordinator Ina Reichel runs the popular liquid nitrogen workshop for 9-12-year-olds, one of the Lab’s variety of programs for different age groups.
How You Can Participate
Dr. Reichel likes to teach three 75-minute workshops, but that’s only possible if there are a number of other adults in the room to help with handing out materials and making sure everyone stays safe. Cryogen Safety (EHS0170, an online course that takes about 30 minutes) is recommended for the adults but not required. You may even get a taste of the specialty of the house — liquid-nitrogen ice cream — though competition can be fierce.
If you can help with one or more of the LN workshops or in other ways (such as preparing the materials in the morning) or have any questions, please contact Ina (x4341, IReichel@lbl.gov). There are other opportunities to help with Daughters and Sons to Work Day; please contact Joe Crippen of the Lab’s Workforce Education and Development office (JRCrippen@lbl.gov).
How Your Kids Can Participate
ATAP’s Ina Reichel (center) and Dan Dietderich pass cryogenics knowledge to eager and properly protected young hands
|The Lab has a variety of programs appropriate for different age groups. All programs include a lot of hands-on science.
Daughters and Sons to Work Day is not restricted to children (or grandchildren) of employees: any employee can bring up to three children. Advance sign-up is required, and there is a modest fee covering the T-shirts, lunch and some of the materials; sign-up instructions will be published in Today at Berkeley Lab.
You can sign up your own child and be a volunteer.
Nuclear Science Day for Scouts, Saturday, April 29
Preparing for a hands-on demo
|On Saturday, April 29th, the Nuclear Science Division is again hosting the Nuclear Science Day for Scouts. Boys can work toward the Nuclear Science merit badge; girls can earn the “Get to Know Nuclear” badge.
Volunteers are needed to help with materials, logistics, chaperoning of groups, and a variety of other tasks.
The program includes tours of the Advanced Light Source, so tour guides with specific knowledge of the ALS are especially needed.
For general volunteer signup, visit http://nuclearscienceday.lbl.gov/volunteers.
If you’re affiliated with a Scout troop, signing up as a volunteer increases the likelihood that your troop will be accepted for this space-limited event.
For both Daughters & Sons to Work Day and Nuclear Science Day for Scouts, we welcome volunteers from all job categories. It takes a lot of people in many walks of life to make the Lab run smoothly, and this is a great chance to share your part in it.
So come out for one or both events! It’s fun, you’ll come away reassured about the future after finding out just how hard a question a 9-year-old can ask, and who knows — maybe you’ll get name-checked as a key early influence in a 2040 Nobel lecture!
Does Something Smell Phishy? Learn How to Avoid Taking the Bait
LBNL’s IT Division has developed a new program to raise and maintain our ability to spot “phishing.” Sign up for it and from time to time you’ll get a harmless e-mail crafted by their cybersecurity staff to resemble the latest phishing scams. Users who have tried it report the experience to be educational and informative, as well as a fun challenge. Give it a try and learn how to protect your computer and the official systems linked to it.
To Learn More…
The Lab’s required annual Computer Security Refresher Course has information on phishing (and many other threats) and may be re-taken at any time. You can also learn about phishing from the Federal Trade Commission and (with an emphasis on tax season) the IRS.
Hone Your Communication Skills with a Free Workshop March 27
|Continuing their efforts to promote professional development at Berkeley Lab, the Diversity and Inclusion Office has partnered with Cindy Simpson from the Association for Women in Science (AWiS) to host a workshop entitled, “Effective Communication Tips and Techniques.”
The workshop is open to all employees and will be held on Monday, March 27, 2017, 1:00-3:00 p.m. in Building 59, Room 3101. (A morning session is also being offered for postdocs.)
The learning objectives of the Effective Communication Tips and Techniques workshop are to provide participants with:
- An understanding of the different influencing factors that inhibit effective communication;
- A review of the techniques that can be employed relating to verbal and nonverbal communication; and
- A comprehensive approach on how to improve their communications style.
The workshop is free to employees, but registration is required. To register, please complete this form.
SAFETY: THE BOTTOM LINE
|ATAP and Engineering Division* Safety Day, Wednesday, March 29
Please mark your calendars for this “all hazards, all hands, all day” event!
*Engineering staff matrixed to ATAP.
With safety as our top priority, ATAP and the Engineering Division will hold a joint Safety Day March 29th, 2017. This will take place throughout our workspaces in Building 46, 46B, 47, 53, the 58 complex, the 71 complex, 77 and 77A.
Safety Day is a chance to step aside from our busy routines and take a fresh look at the tidiness, organization, and safety of our offices, labs, shops, and common areas.
This will be an all-day stand-down for everyone in ATAP, as well as Engineering staff matrixed to us. The only work we will perform that day will be cleanup, QUEST walkthroughs, and other tasks relevant to environment, safety, and health. We expect everyone** to join in unless travel has already been scheduled or illness prevents participation, so please block out March 29 on your calendar and plan on being part of the communal effort.
**Advanced Light Source Accelerator Physics staff will participate in the ALS Division’s Safety Day instead.
An entire day devoted to safety may seem like a lot — but it is less than 0.5% of the work year, and we all have to do our part to keep work areas clean and safe for science.
We’ll be back in touch with further details, and will post resources on our website. In the meanwhile, you can get ready by saving the date (Wednesday, March 29, 2017) and glancing around your workspace with fresh eyes: What can be better organized, sent to Excess or recycling or the trash; or improved?
If you have any questions or would like more information, please contact either: